Each share in a company shall have a distinctive number. Share capital classification and kinds methods of raising. The share capital is non refundable except in the case of winding up and reduction of capital. A company may reserve a portion of its uncalled capital to be called only in the event of winding up of the company. A share, or a stock, is a persons share in the ownership of the company and represents a claim on the companys assets and earnings that is evidenced by a share certificate. Share capital is the money a company raises by issuing common or preferred stock. In addition to the alterations allowed under section 53, the new provision allows a company to capitalise its profits without issuing new shares and to allot and issue bonus. The clause is a modified version of existing section 53 of the co.
A share is that smallest part, into which the overall capital of the company is divided. When a company floats on the stock market the shares will be sold at a certain price, which represents the value placed on the business. A share in the share capital of the company, including stock, is the definition of the term. The characteristics of common stock are defined by the state within which. Accounting for share capit al share and share capital. Nominal capital is divided into shares of a fixed amount. A corporations share capital or capital stock in us english is the portion of a corporations equity that has been obtained by the issue of shares in the corporation to a shareholder, usually for cash. Shares are also known as equities, and the two terms are often used interchangeably. Share structure the different types of company shares. Before reading the different types of share capital, it is advisable to know the meaning of share capital. The term share capital can mean slightly different things depending on the context. A share or the proportion of interest of a shareholder is equal to the proportion of the amount paid to the total capital payable to the company.
Notes on meaning and types of share capital grade 12. With differential rights as to dividend, repayment of capital in the event. Share capital refers to the funds that a company raises in exchange for issuing an ownership interest in the company in the form of shares. Ordinary shares are the most common type of shares and are standard shares with no special rights or restrictions. Capital has been defined as that part of a persons wealth, other than land, which yields an income or which aids in the production of further wealth. Debt and equity on completion of this chapter, you will be able to. A share is a share in the share capital of acompany, and includes stock receipt where there is adistinction between stock and shares is expresed orimplied.
Types of share capital there are two types of share capital. It means that part of the capital of the company which. The value of equity shares are expressed in terms of face value or par value, issue price, book value, market value etc. Financial capital, which represents obligations, and is liquidated as money for trade, and owned by legal entities. Different types of shares what is an ordinary share. Share capital refers to the funds a company receives from selling ownership shares to the public. In a strict accounting sense, share capital is the nominal value of issued shares. Various types of equity capital are authorized, issued, subscribed, paid up, rights, bonus, sweat equity etc. Equity share is a main source of finance for any company giving investors rights to vote, share profits and claim on assets. It must be set out in the memorandum of association. It is available only for the creditors on winding up of the company. Types of shares according to companies act, 20 no change in the concept of types of share capital as in 1956 act. It can be increased or decreased by following the prescribed procedure. However, company should comply with the rule on 8020, 80% of the total share capital must be ordinary shares while 20% can be any other type of shares.
Accounting for share capital class 12 notes accountancy. Basically there are three types of shares into which the whole capital of the company is divided. Venture capital investment is also referred to risk capital or patient risk capital, as it includes the risk of losing the money if the venture doesnt succeed and takes medium to long term period for. Cbse class 12 accountancy part 2 chapter 1 accounting for. These will typically carry equal rights to voting, capital and dividends. Let us look at the various types of shares a company can issue equity shares and preferential shares. Preference shareholders have a higher claim on assets repayment of capital if company is wound. This is the amount of capital with which the company intends to get itself registered. The extent of liabilities and dividends or profits of the owners of a company can only be determined by the number of shares subscribed to be the individual owners or shareholders. The most popular type of share is called a common or ordinary share. Each shareholder can hold different types or classes of shares. The certificate of incorporation of a company is issued by registrar of. Share also includes stock except where a distinction between stock and shares is expressed or implied.
According to section 55 of the act, a company limited by shares cannot issue any preference shares which are irredeemable. Accounting for share capital class 12 notes accountancy, share and share capital. The amount of share capital or equity financing a company has can change over time with additional public offerings. Authorised share capital is the maximum amount of shares a company is allowed to issue to shareholders. Ordinary shareholders own a piece of the company and have certain rights. Share capital equity invested by shareholders and investors. Share capital is a major line item but is sometimes broken out by firms into the different types of equity equity accounts equity accounts consist of common stock, preferred stock, share capital, treasury stock, contributed surplus, additional paidin capital, retained earnings. A company to put its share in the market have to first prepare a memorandum in which the authorized capital is to be written down which is further to be verified by the competent authority which is sebi. Conversel y, when shares are issued below par, they are said to be issued at a discount or. A share is defined as a share a share in the share capital of the company. This is the amount of capital stated in the capital clause of memorandum of association.
The share capital of a company is divided into fixed number of units and each such unit is called a share. The share capital is fundamental to a set up of a company. It is in the form of capital assets, traded in financial markets. There are two general types of share capital, which are common stock and preferred stock. Preference share capital the other type of share capital is the preference share capital. Most companies start by just having one type of shares in the form of an ordinary share class. A share certificate is a written document issued by a company that serves as a legal proof of ownership of one or more of the companys shares. The different types of share capital are authorized share capital, issued capital, subscribed capital, calledup capital and paidup capital. Share capital is the ownership capital of a company raised by the issue of its shares. The issue of new shares after company incorporation will generally be allotments of these ordinary shares, unless circumstances suggest a need for flexibility or varied rights.
The same is to be mentioned in the memorandum of association. Share your knowledge share your word file share your pdf file share your ppt file. Nature and types a company is an artificial person created by law, having separate entity with a perpetual succession and a common seal. A company may have many different types of shares that come with different conditions and rights in relation to profit entitlement, entitlement to capital if the business is wound up and voting rights within the business share types. The amount of share capital or equity financing a company has can. Major types of shares are one having voting and major company rights and claim holders of the profit and the other are the one who have no voting rights or major company rights but are promised of a certain periodic income or interest. Detailed classifications of capital that have been used in various theoretical or applied uses generally respect the following division. Share capital consists of all funds raised by a company in exchange for shares of either common or preferred shares of stock. Preference shares are instruments that have debt fixed dividends and equity capital appreciation characteristics. The share capital is the total sum of money received by an enterprise after selling its shares to the investors. As an investor you should always study the accompanying notes to the share capital. It is the document that acknowledges the ownership of a company to the limit of the amount contributed.
Share capital may also denote the number and types of shares that compose a corporations share structure. Issued capital the capital a company issues from time to time that the public can subscribe for subscribed share capital is that part of the authorised share capital which is for the time being, being. Preference shares company stock with dividends that are paid to shareholders before common stock dividends are paid out. Let rocket lawyer walk you through the most common types of shares a company may issue. Each shareholder can hold different types of shares and may choose different mode of payment for each share type. Floating shares refer to the total number of shares available for trading. Types of shares its common for companies to have different classes of shares, each of them conferring different rights to shareholders, such as voting power and the right to dividends or capital. Share capital is the sum of money received by a company by selling its shares to the investors. Even if the value of the shares increases or decreases, the value of the share capital remains as what. Issue of shares is a process through which the company allocates fresh shares to the new or existing shareholders.880 1130 1018 396 132 1415 334 275 1497 1529 1382 719 822 734 98 667 116 1 904 546 1119 641 1310 717 1277 227 139 1369 470 1488 858 1317 993 215 129 256 133 277 1224 960 1115 322 1149 809 800 1337 1222 797 1039