Pdf soil erosion in the humid tropics with particular reference to. Land between the tropics of cancer and of capricorn having a tropical climate and annual rainfall of at least 1 000 mm. Integrated soil management for the tropics a profitable and environmentally sound approach to land husbandry english abstract. The actual art of soil conservation is based on certain basic principles which include. Principles of soil management by ehrenmoler with arbor equity inc.
Soil conservation for small farmers in the humid tropics. By applying some relatively simple steps, you can control and prevent soil erosion. Causes and features of watershed degradation related to mhp. As a general principle it is suggested that the contribution of fao should be directed. Since its creation in 1984, tsbf has conducted foundational research on the role of biological and organic resources in tropical soil fertility, in order to provide farmers with improved soil management practices for sustainable. The average rate of soil erosion, simply predicted for each feasible alternative combination of crop system and management practices in association with a specified soil type, rainfall pattern, and topography is compared with given soil loss tolerance values to provide specific guidelines for effecting erosion control within specified. Principles and management on free shipping on qualified orders. Soil physical condition is commonly referred to as soil structure. Soil conservation encyclopedia of life support systems. Soil management and erosion control waikato regional council. It is the fairly uniform removal of soil in thin layers from the land surface, often scarcely perceptible, especially when caused by wind.
Features of watershed degradation gully erosion and badlands. Soil conservation is an important part of sustainable agriculture and food production, since it entails keeping soil from becoming a pollutant in the surface waters, and its ability to sieve and filter pollutants that would otherwise end up in drinking water. Whatever the land use, most soil losses come from landscape elements of bare soil. What are the causes of soil erosion and steps in the erosion process.
We are confident that it will serve as an important step in re ducing soil erosion. The note describes integrated soil management ism, focused on the humid tropics, outlines the conditions that are conducive to wide adoption of ism, and identifies the steps needed to foster these techniques in natural resource management, or agricultural. New concepts and approaches to land management in the tropics. Except for climate, these factors suggest areas where changes in management can influence soil loss from water erosion.
Predictability parameters for rainfall erosion in the tropics. The chief agents of soil erosion are water and wind. Soil erosion is the removal of soil material, generally from the surface, by water striking raindrops and downslope runoff or by wind deflation of loose particles and their transport as dust. These plots were kept bare by frequent hand cultivation and weeding. Ways to prevent soil erosion simple solutions to prevent soil erosion. So as to be of the widest applicability, the bulletin emphasizes principles which. It discusses in detail soil conservation topics in relation to soil. Principles of soil conservation and management request pdf. This paper reports the results of soil erosion research carried out at the visayas state college of agriculture visca on the island of leyte in the philippines. Conservation practices can reduce soil loss by up to 99%. All of these practices depend on soil type, soil texture, and slope as well as on the crops that are grown. Erosion control blankets erosion control blankets are usually woven from a chosen material and are meant to slow down the speed at which water moves across the surface. Soil erosion occurs when soil is removed through the action of wind and water at a greater rate than it is formed soil the soil covering the surface of the earth has taken millions of years to form and we must learn to respect it.
Principles and management by rattan lal author isbn. Soil management practices to reduce erosion and improve. The 4 principles of erosion control maxwell supply blog. Accelerated erosion and nutrient loss vary between soils and ecoregions, and depend on slope, soil management, cropping systems, soil conservation measures. This is why erosion control on construction sites is such a focus and a primary objective. Soil erosion and conservation in the tropics published. Challenges for achieving sustainable soil management 5 3. Request pdf principles of soil conservation and management principles of. Soil research for agricultural sustainability in the tropics rattan lal to date, much of the increase in food production in developing countries has been achieved by bringing new land under production, expanding irrigated land area, and applying green revolution technologies. In illinois, the greatest concern for soil degradation is erosion caused by water. Sustainable management of soil resources in the humid tropics. Soil erosion affects downstream communities and the natural environment by increasing the risk of. Voluntary guidelines for sustainable soil management.
About soil health, visual soil assessment, soil management, pugging and compaction, rules and compliance, more information about soil health. Although soil characteristics k may be changed slightly over a long. Ecological approach to sustainable land use in the humid tropics. To accomplish this installation of devices meant to slow down the water is needed. The study of soil erosion is therefore normally divi ded into water erosi on and wind erosion and. It discusses in detail soil conservation topics in relation to soil productivity, environment quality, and agronomic production. Tropical soilsproperties and management for sustainable agriculture article pdf available in geoderma 123s 34. Therefore, it is very importantto select theright soil properties to predict the processes and effects of soil erosion, based on changes in the soil water balance caused by differentcrop andsoil management systems.
Because soil erosion is the single largest problem in maintaining food production worldwide, management practices advocated in this volume will be of. An imbalance among natural resources, population, and basic human needs exists in many regions, but is particularly acute in the developing countries of the warm seasonally dry tropics wsdt. Soil conservation tries to combine modifiable factors so as to maintain. As a matter of principle, it would be desirable to. Oct 02, 2015 this is why erosion control on construction sites is such a focus and a primary objective. Readers should send their comments on this paper to. Your primary course of action is to keep the soil on your site in place. The effect ofcrop management on soil and water losses from maize in zimbabwe rhodesia. Soil erosion is the displacement of the upper layer of soil, it is one form of soil degradation. Soil conservation an overview sciencedirect topics.
The material chosen is usually something with lots of ridges and obstructions for the water to slow down on. More than 3600 measurements of soil loss were compiled. Soil erosion by water is a natural process that cannot be avoided. The agents for this detachme nt and transportation are wind and water. Vegetation and other coverings help prevent soil erosion. Soil science and sustainable land management in the. Understanding soil erosion and management practices. Soil management practices to reduce erosion and improve soil quality randall reeder, extension ag. Integrated soil management for the tropics a profitable. Filling a need for all soil scientists, this comprehensive, volume on the problem of soil erosion, covers the principles and processes of wind and water erosion, with emphasis on the tropics.
Objectives 1 discuss the connections between soil health and plant health 2 describe the soil environment 3 highlight some common soil problems and their remedies. Investigation of soil erosion from bare steep slopes of. The concern about global food security in relation to soil erosion and strategies for confronting the remaining problems in soil management and conservation are specifically addressed. The four most common soil erosion prevention methods are vegetation, geotextiles, mulch, and retaining walls. Four main themes are addressed soil and land resource evaluation, soil biology, soil erosion and conservation, and soil fertility and fertility management although topics such as quaternary geology and the economic context of soil science are also covered. Investigation of soil erosion from bare steep slopes of the. Principles of erosion by wind interest in the fluid transport of solidsin this special case, wind ero sioncontinues not only because erosion affects soil productivity and damages plants but also because wind erosion is an important contributor of. This handbook provides information on all aspects of soil erosion and its control, and upland erosion by water in particular. When soil is eroded, it may become pollution in the water or air.
Soil science and sustainable land management in the tropics. Mostly gully erosion occurs where the vegetation cover is degraded and. Ime role of soil conservation in watershed management on agricultural lands. Principles of soil conservation and management humberto. The potential for erosion of a specific soil type largely.
This natural process is caused by the dynamic activity of erosive agents, that is, water, ice glaciers, snow, air wind, plants, animals, and humans. Additional information on numbers 4 and 5 are found in the soil fertility guide, field crop production guide and guide to crop protection published by manitoba agriculture, food and rural initiatives and in other agronomyrelated publications. This volume is suitable for both undergraduate and graduate students interested in understanding the principles of soil conservation and management. The physical condition of a soil has an important influence on farm economics and environment. It seeks to optimize the interactions between plants. Soil erosion depends on many factors, and a distinction should be made between humanly unchangeable e. Soil structure determines the porosity, strength and stability of a soil. Integrated soil management for the tropics a profitable and. There are four basic principles of erosion control and properly implementing all of them is the only way to ensure effectiveness. Identify the causes of soil erosion and steps in the erosion process.
This barcode number lets you verify that youre getting exactly the right version or edition of a book. Erosion preceded by the destruction of the crumb structure due to the impact of falling raindrop on the surface of soil is termed as splash erosion. Sos 520 principle of soil conservation and management. Soil management practices to reduce erosion and improve soil. Engineer ohio state university columbus, ohio managing agricultural landscapes for environmental quality conference october 11, 2006. Agroecology is an integrated approach that simultaneously applies ecological and social concepts and principles to the design and management of food and agricultural systems. Conserving soil moisture and fertility in the warm seasonally. We are confident that it will serve as an important step in reducing soil erosion. Hydrologic and soil erosion data for very steep, uniform slope, soil erosion plots are presented for a 3yr period. Soil erosion control is provided whenever vegetation is developed enough. Soil erosion is a very visible negative impact of pastoral land use.
Soil erosion is the process by which soil is moved. The note describes integrated soil management ism, focused on the humid tropics, outlines the conditions that are conducive to wide adoption of ism, and identifies the steps needed to foster these techniques in natural resource management, or. Effective practices in mitigating soil erosion from fields. Erosion processes and soilconservation technology soil erosion takes place when particles of soil are detached and then transported to a different place. Integrated soil fertility management in the tropics. Province of manitoba agriculture soil management guide. Conserving soil moisture and fertility in the warm seasonally dry tropics english abstract. The extent of damage associated with soil erosion is analyzed, with emphasis on the impact these may have on future human food security as well as the natural environment. To enumerate the most important soil conservation measures and the principles on which they are based, at the same time indicating how they can. Soil erosion by water in the tropics ctahr university of hawaii. In this study, the diverse factors that cause soil erosion are evaluated.
Control measures soil surface management for erosion control. When land is cleared of protective covering, it is much more susceptible to erosion. Soil conservation and management in developing countries. T value tolerable erosion equilibrium between soil gains and losses. Principles of soil conservation and management springerlink. Conserving soil moisture and fertility in the warm. Our reputation for quality goods from a quality environment depends on sustainable land use practices.
We are indebted to the authors, organizers, and editors for this fine publication. Department of agronomy mf2860 erosion kansas state university agricultural experiment station and cooperative extension service principles of wind erosion and its control a collection of minerals, organic matter, nutrients, gases, and water, soil is responsible for the production of the majority of the worlds food supply. The intensity of deepening depends on the slope and the ground texturestructure. Causes and features of watershed degradation related to. It affects processes such as soil erosion and land drainage. Case studies include work from zimbabwe, thailand and the philippines.
Ways to prevent soil erosion which method will you choose. Soil research for agricultural sustainability in the tropics. Environmental and economic performance and sustainability of our agriculture, including forestry, can be greatly influenced. A soil water balance model for monitoring soil erosion. Although the manuscripts focus on soil erosion and conservation in the tropics, the principles and many of the technologies discussed apply worldwide. Gully erosion occurs when, during a rain event, laminar surface runoff becomes linear and strongly deepens small rillsriverbeds. Principles of erosion by wind interest in the fluid transport of solids in this special case, wind ero sioncontinues not only because erosion affects soil productivity and damages plants but also because wind erosion is an important contributor of atmospheric aerosols. Strategy document integrated soil fertility management in the tropics. It seeks to optimize the interactions between plants, animals, humans and the environment while taking into consideration the social. We analyzed soil erosion control in the humid tropics. Watershed degradation is the loss of value over time, including the productive potential of land and water, accompanied by marked changes in the hydrological behaviour of a river system resulting in inferior quality, quantity and timing of waterflow the protection, improvement and rehabilitation of mountain andor upland watersheds are of critical importance in the.
The longterm economic viability of any farm depends on the maintenance of soil quality. Erosion is caused by many different weather factors, such as wind, water, and glacial movement. Basic soil erosion and types university of wisconsin. The soil management guide focuses on the first three principles.1093 935 1 1292 96 1111 1137 1404 920 114 877 617 472 807 473 862 1074 15 530 1296 583 1160 1280 1134 1048 93 535 880 1449 678 818 631 605 853 996 1509 495 712 1025 1077 587 151 1211 339 395 206